Scientific evidence has shown links among HIV, human papillomavirus (HPV), and cervical cancer.1 Subsequently, UNAIDS and the World Health Organization have called for leveraging the synergies between these conditions to improve patient outcomes by developing integrated approaches that address HIV, child and adolescent health, sexual and reproductive health and rights, gender equality, and cancer and primary healthcare services to address the interrelated factors that increase the risk for each of these conditions.1 The hope is that widespread use of such strategies can help prevent unnecessary deaths from cervical cancer and bring an end to the AIDS epidemic by 2030.
- HPV, HIV, and cervical cancer: leveraging synergies to save women’s lives. UNAIDS. Published 2016. Accessed January 11, 2018.
- Key statistics for cervical cancer. American Cancer Society. Accessed January 11, 2018.
- Cervical cancer rates by state. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Accessed January 11, 2018.
- HIV infection and cancer risk. National Cancer Institute. Reviewed September 14, 2017. Accessed January 11, 2018.
- Frumovitz F. Invasive cervical cancer: epidemiology, risk factors, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis. UptoDate. Reviewed December 2017. Accessed January 11, 2018.
- Draft recommendation statement: cervical cancer screening. US Preventive Services Task Force. Issued October 2017. Accessed January 11, 2018.
- 6 reasons to get HPV vaccine for your child. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Updated August 24, 2017. Accessed January 11, 2018.
- Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines. National Cancer Institute. Reviewed November 2, 2016. Accessed January 11, 2018.
- Guidelines for the prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections in HIV-infected adults and adolescents: human papillomavirus disease. US Department of Health and Human Services. Reviewed July 25, 2017. Accessed January 11, 2018.
- Ghebre RG, Grover S, Xu MJ, Chuang LT, Simonds H. Cervical cancer control in HIV-infected women: past, present and future. Gynecol Oncol Rep. 2017;21:101-108.
- Levin MJ, Moscicki AB, Song LY, et al; IMPAACT P1047 Protocol Team. Safety and immunogenicity of a quadrivalent human papillomavirus (types 6, 11, 16, and 18) vaccine in HIV-infected children 7 to 12 years old. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2010;55:197-204.
- Kahn JA, Xu J, Kapogiannis BG, et al. Immunogenicity and safety of the human papillomavirus 6, 11, 16, 18 vaccine in HIV-infected young women. Clin Infect Dis. 2013;57:735-744.
- Kojic EM, Rana AI, Cu-Uvin S. Human papillomavirus vaccination in HIV-infected women: need for increased coverage. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2016;15:105-117.
- Palefsky JM, Holly EA. Chapter 6: Immunosuppression and co-infection with HIV. JNCI Monographs. 2003;31:41-46.
- Simonds HM, Wright JD, du Toit N, Neugut AI, Jacobson JS. Completion of and early response to chemoradiation among HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients with locally advanced cervical carcinoma in South Africa: a retrospective cohort study. Cancer. 2012;118:2971-2979.
- Cervical Cancer. Version 1.2018. NCCN Guidelines. https://www.nccn.org/professionals/physician_gls/pdf/cervical.pdf. Accessed January 15, 2017.
- Ntekim A, Campbell O, Rothenbacher D. Optimal management of cervical cancer in HIV-positive patients: a systematic review. Cancer Medicine. 2015;4:1381-1393.
- Does multidisciplinary care improve health outcomes among people living with HIV and/or HCV? A review of the evidence. CATIE. Accessed January 15, 2018.
- Grover S, Chiyapo SP, Puri P, et al. Multidisciplinary gynecologic oncology clinic in botswana: a model for multidisciplinary oncology care in low- and middle-income settings. J Glob Oncol. 2017;3:666-670.
- ClinicalTrials.gov. Modulated electro-hyperthermia plus chemo-radiation for locally advanced cervical cancer patients in South Africa (mEHT). NCT03332069. Accessed January 15, 2017.